Difference between protocol and standards

Protocol A protocol is a particular set of rules for having a conversation between two computers to convey a specific set of information. It is an agreement between the communicating parties on how the communication is to proceed. Violating the protocol will make the communication more difficult. An example of protocol would be TCP/IP. The specifics of the above […]

Binary Counter Design

Sequential-Synchronous Counter Design The different steps for the design of the synchronous sequential counter circuits are: i)          State diagram ii)         state table and  excitation table iii)        Simplification using K-Map iv)         Logic Design Number of Flip-Flops required for implementing a counter: For N-bit counter, N flip-flops would be required For counter counting upto  N states, the number […]

Magnitude Comparator

Magnitude Comparator: A magnitude comparator is a combinational circuit that compares two binary numbers and determines their relative magnitude. The schematic block diagram in figure-1 has two inputs and three outputs. It compares two numbers for equality, less than and greater than conditions. Depending on the comparison, one of the output will be true and […]

Decoder and Encoder

Implementing with Decoders: A decoder is a combinational circuit that converts N-bit binary information to 2N unique output lines. It is able to represent upto 2N distinct elements of coded information. General type decoders usually come in sizes of Nx2N where N is the number of input lines. With a given input, only one of […]

Adder Circuits

Adder Circuits An adder is a combinational circuit that adds multi-bit (two or more). Different types of adders are: Half Adder : A combinational circuit that adds 2-bits Full Adder : A combinational circuit that adds 2-bits and a carry from the previous stage of addition. Ripple Carry Adder/ or Carry Propagate Adder: An adder that add […]

Design of Register using VHDL

AIM Write VHDL programs for the following circuits, check the wave forms and the hardware generated register                 shift register  Objective: The objective of this lab is to : revise the theory behind the working of the registers To learn VHDL coding for the registers Synthesize register using VHDL Verify the operation using functional Simulation […]

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