Design of a divide by N counter A divide by N counter counter N number of state following which it resets back to the initial state and starts counting again. For example, a divide by 10 also known as a decade counter counts a total of 10 states from 0 to 9 before resetting to […]

## Binary Counter Design

Sequential-Synchronous Counter Design The different steps for the design of the synchronous sequential counter circuits are: i) State diagram ii) state table and excitation table iii) Simplification using K-Map iv) Logic Design Number of Flip-Flops required for implementing a counter: For N-bit counter, N flip-flops would be required For counter counting upto N states, the number […]

## Mc-Clusky or Tabulation Method

Introduction In the previous lectures, you have learnt the Boolean algebra and K-Map methods of solving Boolean expressions. These methods are simple and easy for less number of variables say upto four. But for more than 4 variable equations, these become tedious. So, another method known as Quine Mc-Clusky or Tabulation Method is used for […]

## Magnitude Comparator

Magnitude Comparator: A magnitude comparator is a combinational circuit that compares two binary numbers and determines their relative magnitude. The schematic block diagram in figure-1 has two inputs and three outputs. It compares two numbers for equality, less than and greater than conditions. Depending on the comparison, one of the output will be true and […]

## Decoder and Encoder

Implementing with Decoders: A decoder is a combinational circuit that converts N-bit binary information to 2N unique output lines. It is able to represent upto 2N distinct elements of coded information. General type decoders usually come in sizes of Nx2N where N is the number of input lines. With a given input, only one of […]

## Multiplexers and De-Multiplexers

Introduction to Multiplexer: A multiplexer, also called as a data selector, is a combinational circuit used to select information from one of the many input sources and directs it to a single output line. A multiplexer has several data input lines but only one output. Control or selection lines are used for selecting one of the input […]

## Adder Circuits

Adder Circuits An adder is a combinational circuit that adds multi-bit (two or more). Different types of adders are: Half Adder : A combinational circuit that adds 2-bits Full Adder : A combinational circuit that adds 2-bits and a carry from the previous stage of addition. Ripple Carry Adder/ or Carry Propagate Adder: An adder that add […]

## Design of Register using VHDL

AIM Write VHDL programs for the following circuits, check the wave forms and the hardware generated register shift register Objective: The objective of this lab is to : revise the theory behind the working of the registers To learn VHDL coding for the registers Synthesize register using VHDL Verify the operation using functional Simulation […]

## Design of Counters using VHDL

AIM Write a VHDL program for a counter and check the wave forms and the hardware generated Objective: Objective of this lab is to: Revise the theoretical work Learn the VHDL Coding Synthesize counters using VHDL Verify the functionality using ISIM simulator Theory: A digital counter is a sequential circuit consisting of a number of […]

## Design of Flip-Flops in VHDL

AIM : Design of Flip-Flops in VHDL Objective: To revise the basic theory behind the working of the flip flops To understand the syntax of VHDL To synthesize and simulate using VHDL Theory: The theory extend from latches to flip-flops. the basic similarity and differences between a latch and a flip-flop being: Sl Latch Flip-Flop […]