Cauer Form of Circuit Realization Cauer introduced two forms of circuit realization from the network function. These are known as Cauer 1st Form of network/circuit realization : The network function used for realization is such that of n>m,where n is the degree of numerator (P(s)) polynomial and m is the degree of the denominator polynomial. […]

### Category: Electronics

## Foster’s Form 1 and 2 of Network Synthesis with examples

Foster’s Form of Synthesis Foster has given two types of network synthesis for one-port reactive network Series combination of parallel LC networks The parallel combination of series LC networks Foster 1st Form When numerator polynomial is of higher degree than the denominator polynomial The first element capacitor is represented by A0/s The last element Inductor […]

## Network Synthesis Part-1 Lecture Notes

Network Synthesis Lecture Notes Network analysis: You are given a network then you analyze the behavior (output) by applying certain excitation. Network Synthesis: You know the output response for certain excitation, then you are required to find appropriate Z(s) or Y(s) that will give that desired behavior. Let us consider the network equations in terms […]

## Positive Real Function (prf)

Positive Real Function (prf) We know that the driving point impedance (Z(s) and driving point admittance (Y(s))are of the following type: N(s) = P(s) / Q(s) The function is prf if: N(s) is real for s real Q(s) is Hurwitz polynomial If N(s) has poles on (jw) axis, poles are simple and residues thereof are […]

## Routh Hurwitz Polynomial

Properties of the Routh Hurwitz Polynomial: A polynomial to be Hurwitz when- P(s) is real when s ir real The roots of P(s) have real parts which are zero or negative. Properties of Hurwitz polynomial P(s) = ansn + an-1sn-1 +…………….a1s + a0 are: Coefficient of s must be positive Both odd and even parts […]

## Concepts of Network functions (driving point and transfer function)

General Terminologies of Two-Port networks: Network: A network is an interconnection of passive elements and dependent sources. There are no active or independent sources inside the box. The network is treated to be part of the square box shown in the figure. Terminal: A terminal is the endpoint of the conductor which is connected to […]

## Open Circuit and Short Circuit impedance and Image Impedance

Open circuit and Short circuit impedance of a two-port network in terms of ABCD parameters From the generalized ABCD parameter equation V1=AV2 – BI2 I1=CV2 – DI2 Applying Open circuit at port-2; I2=0 we get V1= AV2; I1= CV2 Z1O = V1/I1= A/C ——————————(i) Applying the short circuit at port-2; V2=0, we get […]

## Interconnection of Networks

Interconnection of Networks: With the concept that impedance in series are additive and admittance in parallel are additive, we can easily solve the series and parallel combination of networks in terms of Z and Y parameters respectively. Networks can be connected in: Parallel connection Series Connection Parallel Connection of two-port networks We know the basic […]

## 8279 Keyboard/Display Interface

Keyboard Types Mechanical key switches Membrane type: with advantage that they can be made very thin and sealed Capacitive Type: When a key is pressed the capacitance between the plates varies. Hall effect: No mechanical contact. It take advantage of the deflection of a moving charge by a magnetic field. Keyboard Circuit connection and Interfacing […]

## Inter-relationship between the two-port Parameters

Inter-relationship between the two-port Parameters The following steps of operations can be used for the transformation one set of parameters in terms of other set of parameters: Step 1. Write the standard equations for both sets. Step 2. Solve or rearrange the second set of equations and writing them in terms of the independent variables of 1st […]