Introduction to Advanced Computer Networks




To understand different network protocols with emphasis on TCP/IP protocol suite.



Network Layer:

ARP,RARP,ICMP,IPv4 Routing Principles, Routing and overview, DVR and LSR, the IGRP and EIGRP, BGP, Routing Information Protocol (RIP), OSPF  (IPv4 / IPv6).

Multicasting in IP Environments-Broadcasting, Multicasting, IGMP and Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD). The Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol (DVMRP), Multicast OSPF (MOSPF), Protocol Independent Multicast (PIM).


Transport Layer: Transport layer overview, UDP, TCP (Flow Control, Error Control, and Connection Establishment), TCP Protocol: TCP Tahoe, TCP Reno.


Optical Networking:

Introduction to Optical networking, its benefits and drawbacks, SONET layered architecture, frame format, SONET network configuration, its advantages and benefits. Quality of Service: Introducing QoS, Queue Analysis, QoS Mechanisms, Queue Management algorithms, Resource Reservation, Diffserv and Intserv.


Overview of latest concepts:

TCP/IP Applications: VoIP, NFS, Telnet ,FTP,SMTP, SNMP, Finger, Whois and WWW,   IP v6 and Next Generation Networks, xAAS(PAAS,SAAS,HAAS) and Cloud Computing, Big data, Elements of Social Network.

Text Books:

[T1]        Douglas E. Comer, “Internet networking with TCP/IP”, Pearson. TCP/IP, Vol. 2

[T2]        B. A. Forouzan, “TCP/IP Protocol Suite”, TMH, 2nd Ed., 2004.

 Reference Books:

[R1]        TCP/IP Illustrated, Volume 1 (The Protocols) by W. Richard Stevens, Pearson Education.

[R2]        U. Black, “Computer Networks-Protocols, Standards and Interfaces”, PHI, 1996.

[R3]        W. Stallings, “Computer Communication Networks”, PHI, 1999.


Introduction to TCP IP

  • Communication over networks relies on the application of rules that govern how data is transmitted and processed in a manner that is understood by both the sending and receiving entities. As a result, multiple standards have been developed over the course of time with some standards becoming widely adopted. There exists however a clear distinction between the standards that manage physical data flow and the standards responsible for logical forwarding and delivery of traffic.
  • The IEEE 802 standards represent a universal standard for managing the physical transmission of data across the physical network and comprises of standards including the Ethernet standard 802.3 for physical transmission over local area networks.

  • Alternative standards exist for transmission over wide area networks operating over serial based media, including Ethernet, PPP and HDLC. TCP/IP has been widely adopted as the protocol suite defining the upper layer standards, regulating the rules (protocols) and behavior involved in managing the logical forwarding and delivery between end stations.


(OSI) model was first introduced in the late 1970s by International Standards Organization(ISO) which was established in 1947. It has 7 layers-Physical Layer, Data Link Layer, Network Layer, Transport Layer, Session Layer, Presentation Layer, Application Layer

The original TCP/IP protocol suite was defined as having four layers: host-to-network, internet, transport, and application. However, when TCP/IP is compared to OSI, we can say that the TCP/IP protocol suite is made of five layers: physical, data link, network, transport, and application

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