A computer system is composed of hardware and the software. At the lowest level is the hardware layer and above it are the software layers.
A computer is an electronic programmable machine. To make the hardware work, it can be programmed using the programming languages. These languages are divided into various levels, these are described below:
It is a language of 0’s and 1’s, which is a binary language. Writing in binary format is very difficult. But is very easy machine, bcs m/c works on binary. Therefor m/c can directly execute such code without conversion.
In thi level mnemonic or symbols are used for the binary code. Thus making it convenient for the programmer to remember the codes which were difficult in binary or machine level language.
Though the assembly language codes are easier to remember by the programmer, but, now an additional software called assembler will be required to convert the symbols/mnemonics into the machine language.
They are written as spoken language or English like language making it very easy and convenient to write the program. See the following sample codes:
Input the value of ‘A’
print the value’ A’
Input the value of ‘B’
print the value’ B’
Sum A and B
But, again we would need a software called compiler to convert this code into the machine or binary level language.
Introduction of additional software like assembler or compilers creates overhead on the execution of theinstruction as now the program is first required to beconverted into machine or binary before it get executed.
To write an efficient, effecive and maintanable programe, a programmer follows the given below steps.
1. Problem statement
4. write the code
6. Then implement